Friday, May 22, 2020

Admiral Edward Vernon of the Royal Navy

A distinguished officer in the Royal Navy, Admiral Edward Vernons career commenced in 1700 and spanned a period of 46 years. This saw him learn his trade under Admiral Cloudesley Shovell before establishing himself as a rising star in the ranks. Vernon saw active service in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) and later in the War of Jenkins Ear and the War of the Austrian Succession. Though he won a triumph at Porto Bello in 1739, he is best remembered for his invention of grog, a rum and water mixture, that was provided to the sailors in his fleets. Grog would go on to become a staple of Royal Navy life until 1970. Early Life Career Born November 12, 1684 in London, Edward Vernon was the son of James Vernon, secretary of state to King William III. Raised in the city, he received some education at the Westminster School before entering the Royal Navy on May 10, 1700. A popular school for the sons of well-placed Britons, Westminster later produced both Thomas Gage and John Burgoyne who would play key roles in the American Revolution. Assigned to HMS Shrewsbury (80 guns), Vernon possessed more education than most his peers. Remaining aboard for less than a year, he shifted to HMS Ipswich (70) in March 1701 before joining HMS Mary (60) that summer. War of the Spanish Succession With the War of the Spanish Succession raging, Vernon received a promotion to lieutenant on September 16, 1702 and was transferred to HMS Lennox (80). After service with the Channel Squadron, Lennox sailed for the Mediterranean where it remained until 1704. When the ship was paid off, Vernon moved to Admiral Cloudesley Shovells flagship, HMS Barfleur (90). Serving in the Mediterranean, he experienced combat during the capture of Gibraltar and Battle of Malaga. Becoming a favorite of Shovell, Vernon followed the admiral to HMS Britannia (100) in 1705 and aided in the capture of Barcelona. Rapidly rising through the ranks, Vernon was elevated to captain on January 22, 1706 at the age of twenty-one. First assigned to HMS Dolphin (20), he shifted to HMS Rye (32) a few days later. After taking part in the failed 1707 campaign against Toulon, Vernon sailed with Shovells squadron for Britain. Nearing the British Isles, several of Shovells ships were lost in the Scilly Naval Disaster which saw four ships sunk and 1,400-2,000 men killed, including Shovell, due to a navigational error. Saved from the rocks, Vernon arrived home and received command of HMS Jersey (50) with orders to oversee the West Indies station. Member of Parliament Arriving in the Caribbean, Vernon campaigned against the Spanish and broke up an enemy naval force near Cartagena in 1710. He returned home at the wars end in 1712. Between 1715 and 1720, Vernon commanded various vessels in home waters and in the Baltic before serving as commodore at Jamaica for a year. Coming ashore in 1721, Vernon was elected to Parliament from Penryn a year later. A staunch advocate for the navy, he was vocal in debates regarding military matters. As tensions with Spain increased, Vernon returned to the fleet in 1726 and took command of HMS Grafton (70). After cruising to the Baltic, Vernon joined the fleet at Gibraltar in 1727 after Spain declared war. He remained there until fighting ended a year later. Returning to Parliament, Vernon continued to champion maritime matters and argued against continued Spanish interference with British shipping. As relations between the two countries worsened, Vernon advocated for Captain Robert Jenkins who had his ear cut off by the Spanish Coast Guard in 1731. Though wishing to avoid war, First Minister Robert Walpole ordered additional troops to be sent to Gibraltar and ordered a fleet to sail for the Caribbean. War of Jenkins War Promoted to vice admiral on July 9, 1739, Vernon was given six ships of the line and ordered to attack Spanish commerce and settlements in the Caribbean. As his fleet sailed west, Britain and Spain severed relations and the War of Jenkins Ear began. Descending on the poorly defended Spanish town of Porto Bello, Panama, he quickly captured it on November 21 and remained there for three weeks. The victory led to the naming of Portobello Road in London and public debut of the song Rule, Britannia!. For his achievement, Vernon was hailed as a hero and was granted Freedom of the City of London. Old Grog The following year saw Vernon order that the daily rum ration provided to the sailors be watered down to three parts water and one part rum in an effort to reduce drunkenness. As Vernon was known as Old Grog for his habit of wearing grogham coats, the new drink became known as grog. Some have argued that Vernon dictated the addition of citrus juice to the mixture which would led to much-reduced rates of scurvy and other diseases in his fleet as it would have added a daily dose of Vitamin C. This appears to be a misreading of his original orders and was not part of the original recipe. Failure at Cartagena In an effort to follow up Vernons success at Porto Bello, in 1741 he was given a large fleet of 186 ships and 12,000 soldiers led by Major General Thomas Wentworth. Moving against Cartagena, Colombia, British forces were hampered by frequent disagreements between the two commanders and delays ensued. Due to the prevalence of disease in the region, Vernon was skeptical of the operations success. Arriving in early March 1741, British efforts to take the city were plagued by a lack of supplies and rampaging disease. Endeavoring to defeat the Spanish, Vernon was forced to withdraw after sixty-seven days which saw around a third of his force lost to enemy fire and disease. Among those to take part in the campaign was George Washingtons brother, Lawrence, who named his plantation Mount Vernon in the admirals honor. Sailing north, Vernon captured Guantà ¡namo Bay, Cuba and desired to move against Santiago de Cuba. This effort failed due to heavy Spanish resistance and Wentworths incompetence. With the failure of British operations in the region, both Vernon and Wentworth were recalled in 1742. A Return to Parliament Returning to Parliament, now representing Ipswich, Vernon continued to battle on behalf of the Royal Navy. Critical of the Admiralty, he may have authored several anonymous pamphlets which attacked its leadership. Despite his actions, he was promoted to admiral 1745, and took command of the North Sea Fleet in an effort to prevent French aid from reaching Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) and the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland. Having been refused in his request to be named Commander-in-Chief he elected to step down on December 1. The following year, with the pamphlets circulating, he was removed from the Royal Navys list of flag officers. An avid reformer, Vernon remained in Parliament and worked to improve the Royal Navys operations, protocols, and fighting instructions. Many of the changes he worked for aided in the Royal Navys dominance in the Seven Years War. Vernon continued to serve in Parliament until his death at his estate in Nacton, Suffolk on October 30, 1757. Buried at Nacton, Vernons nephew had a monument erected to his memory at Westminster Abbey.

Saturday, May 9, 2020

The Birth of Research Paper Help Services

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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Kafka and the Dramatisation of the Guilty Free Essays

Kafka†¦ draws the reader into the dramatization of the (guilty) failure to arrive, to communicate, to understand. And it is this movement which he describes again and again, not only on the level of rational discourse, but on a great many levels. -Heller Heller’s statement is at best a rather enigmatic one: riddled with unanswered questions and uncertainties. We will write a custom essay sample on Kafka and the Dramatisation of the Guilty or any similar topic only for you Order Now The reader of Heller’s statement would first ask himself how Kafka†¦ draws the reader into the dramatization, then would question the failure to arrive, to communicate, to understand: arrive, communicate, understand what? Thirdly, one asks oneself what is the movement he describes again and again: drawing the reader into the dramatization or the failure to arrive, communicate, understand. And lastly, one wonders what the â€Å"many levels† are that Kafka uses to communicate the rather ambiguous â€Å"movement†. The failure to arrive is a recurrent theme throughout the novel. Probably the best example of it is the failure to arrive at a judgement. K is on trial for the entirety of the novel, and never is judgement passed on him. He is waiting for the court to arrive at a judgement during the course of the novel, yet at the end he is only punished: the court never arrives at a judgement. This can be applied to most of the book: for instance K’s failure to arrive at the first hearing on time and the failure of his case to arrive at the highest courts. It is if events are placed in suspense, their conclusion shimmering ever so faintly in the distance and the reader, like Tantalus, attempts to attain the unattainable. Failure to arrive may indicate that in â€Å"The Trial† the journey or process is more important than its conclusion; was the original German manuscript not actually called â€Å"Der Prozess†? However, whatever be the meaning of the failure to arrive, it is ins trumental in creating tension as the conclusion continues to be elusive. The failure to arrive can possibly be linked with the failure to communicate in that if one is still in the process of thinking and has not yet arrived at a conclusion, one would find it difficult to accurately describe the thought process to another, hence the failure to communicate. I believe that the most accurate way to define the failure to communicate can be found in Brink’s interpretation of the novel. Brink sees language in â€Å"The Trial† as being unable to communicate anything. Take, for example, the advocate’s speeches. They are entirely superfluous: Huld turns endlessly around the point with out actually addressing it. Whether this is due to the inadequacy of language or to whether there actually is a point or not one is not sure, but there is clearly a failure to communicate. I believe that the concept of failure to communicate in The Trial is perhaps partly created by the language used in the novel, most of which convey only abstracted logical conc epts. The language used has no substance and therefore it is completely detached from reality: the syntax is correct but it makes no sense at all. Failure to understand also plays an extremely important rà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½le in the novel. It can be seen to follow on directly from the failure to communicate: if one person cannot communicate, the other cannot understand. Perhaps the most important instance of failure to understand is K’s failure to understand the court system. He never seems to develop an adequate understanding of it from those who have or claim to have an understanding of it. They are unable to communicate their understanding to K, thus keeping K from arriving at an understanding or conclusion. This of course brings us back to the failure to arrive (at a conclusion) which in turns leads to the failure to communicate, and so on. According to Heller, Kafka dramatizes these failures by creating forms in which they can interact with each other, i.e. characters. It is into this dramatization that Kafka draws us by a rather clever usage of basic trait of human nature. Human nature is rather curious by definition, and Kafka uses this facet of human nature to entice the reader into a complete immersion in the world of â€Å"The Trial†. The failure to arrive at any conclusion or judgement is rather intriguing in that it creates a permanent sense of tension: a menace hanging over one’s head in suspended animation and the goal almost visible in the distance. One does not know whether it will remain suspended, spring to life, or whether it is there at all. Indeed, one does not know if there really is a point or conclusion. This uncertainty, however, does not stop our pursuit of the glittering conclusion. The sight of it makes the state of uncertainty even more unbearable and the elusive conclusion yet mor e desirable. One is enticed into entering deeper into a tangle of uncertainties by this lure. The failure to communicate supports this. By using extremely ambiguous language, devoid of any substance and meaning, one is constantly held in a state of uncertainty. Bathed in this uncertainty, we feel the need to understand, to resolve the uncertainties. The failure to understand throughout the novel is echoed in the mind of the reader: if the narrator and/or the text know nothing and/or communicate nothing it is natural that the reader is maintained in a situation where he understands nothing and his curiosity is aroused. Eventually the reader to becomes part of the drama. His failures to understand, communicate and arrive echo those in the novel and reinforce them, plunging the reader yet deeper into the labyrinth without a center. This movement is a downward cycle in which confusion begets confusion, drawing the reader deeper and deeper into the text in a downward spiral. Heller declares that it is this movement which is described and communicated again and again throughout the text. It is indeed correct that this movement is repeated again and again: it is a chain reaction in which some begets more of the same and so on and so forth. However, one wonders how Kafka manages to communicate this to the reader. It is certainly almost impossible to explain it through the medium of language since it has been explained in the text that language is ambiguous and only confounds and obfuscates. Yet by it’s own definition then, it is perfectly suited to describe this movement and feeling in the novel. Kafka uses the container, and not the content, in order to communicate the movement to his readers. Yet in a sense the content, or rather the lack of it, also helps to communicate the movement. One expects that a container contains. It is logical that and object should fulfill its definition. In ascribing to this logic, one falls even deeper into the text as one searches for meaning and substance. One becomes lost and confused wading through all the superfluous packaging searching for the content. But there is no center; there is no content. We echo K in his search for the high court, the nub of the court system. He fails because there is no nub; there is no high court. How to cite Kafka and the Dramatisation of the Guilty, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

John D. Rockefeller Essays - Rockefeller Family, Standard Oil

John D. Rockefeller During the late 1800's and early 1900's the oil industry was a monopoly that was created by one man. Some people would describe this man as a ruthless, cruel, cutthroat business tycoon. This man was John Davison Rockefeller. John D. Rockefeller made the Standard Oil Company, becoming America's first billionaire, and then gave away more than half his fortune to charities. John Rockefeller was a dedicated businessman who built himself an empire from nothing and helped others with his generous donations. His business ended up helping smaller businesses because of the new laws and restrictions that needed to be created in order for the U.S. government to have a handle on the Standard Oil Company. John D. Rockefeller changed the oil industry, created and greatly contributed to many charities in America. Rockefeller was born on July 8, 1839 in Richford, New York (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). He married Laura C. Spelman (1839-1915) on September 8, 1864 (Rockefeller Family and Associates n.p.). His mother, Eliza Davison Rockefeller, was very religious and disciplined, she was the person who taught him to work hard, save and give to charities (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). Rockefeller's mother had the biggest influence on him involving his religion and philanthropy. John D. Rockefellers father, William Avery Rockefeller, was a pitch man or a doctor that says he can cure cancers for a fee (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). John and Laura Rockefeller had four girls and one boy (Rockefeller Family and Associates n.p.). The one boy they did have, John Davison Rockefeller Jr. (1874-1960), went on to continue his father's work and make the Rockefeller name a well-liked one instead of one that was a bitter reminder of his father's business techniques (Rockefeller Family and Associates n.p.). John D. Rockefel ler died on May 23, 1937 in Ormond, Florida after retiring from the oil industry in 1911 (J.D.R. Encyclopedia of World Biography Vol. 13 228). Rockefeller attended Folsom's Commercial College for ten weeks where he studied single and double entry bookkeeping, penmanship, commercial history, mercantile customs, banking and exchange to help him get a job (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). He never attended any other type of school after attending Folsom's Commercial College. The most important person in Rockefeller's life was his mother when he was growing up (Bill Bell n.p.). She was the person who taught him about his religion. When Rockefeller was twelve years old, he loaned a local farmer fifty dollars at seven percent interest, and discovered that letting money do the work was a much better way to earn a living, instead of working one's whole life (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). Charging interest on his money earned him more than he had to loan out and led him to stocks, where he always had more of the company's stocks than anyone else. His first real job was at as an assistant bookkeeper where he gained many responsibilities because of his hard work mentality and honesty (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). Since Rockefeller was poor as a child he always worked hard to get anything. This was a very good quality that he had, and it helped him greatly when he was looking for a job. Rockefeller's family was Baptist and so Rockefeller himself, was a very religious ma n that always gave money to the church (J.D.R. J.D.R. Page n.p.). When Rockefeller was twenty years of age, he would give ten percent of his income to his church (Roger Draper n.p.). He even paid off the mortgage of the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church after suffering a heart attack one day before he died (Bill Bell n.p.). In his business and retired life he loved to pile up money, but also loved to give it away to charities (Bill Bell n.p.). Rockefeller first went into business, in grains, with Maurice Cark (1859) and soon expanded into oil refining when it was just getting going (J.D.R. Encyclopedia of World Biography vol. 13 226). Rockefeller was involved in the South Improvement Company Scheme in 1871, which was ...a defensive alliance of Cleveland refiners to meet the bitter opposition of the oil producers of Pennsylvania. (J.D.R. Encyclopedia of World Biography vol.13 227). The plan and the Refiner's pool were outlawed by the Pennsylvania Legislature (J.D.R.

Friday, March 20, 2020

The role of arts in modern life is unique, providi Essays

The role of arts in modern life is unique, providi Essays The role of arts in modern life is unique, providing people with entertainment and yielding various psychological rewards, such as relief from stress. Despite these benefits, the arts have been taken as luxury goods in many cases. It is suggested that public money of a city should be concentrated in projects like public facilities, which arc more likely to bring immediate benefits to the public, rather than the arts. There are a number of facts indicating that this position is right.Public facilities, widely accepted as one of the main precursors to a city's development, should be one of the highest priorities. Those underdeveloped cities in particular, should direct sufficient funding toward public facilities. While municipal office buildings, courthouses and post offices are essential components of public services, libraries, hospitals, parks, playing fields, gymnasiums and swimming pools are available to the public for social, educational, athletic and cultural activities. By boos ting spending on public facilities, cities are more capable to satisfy the needs of citizens and improve their standard of living.In addition to social benefits, there are economic merits that public facilities can offer to communities. An integrated transport network (maritime, land and inland waterways transport and civil aviation), for example, promises the smooth and speedy movement of goods and people in a city. Industrial products, as well as agricultural produce of a city, can be delivered to other cities in exchange for steady income. Of equal importance are public Internet facilities. Providing access to information by improving Internet and other telecommunications facilities has relevance to the ease with which businesses in a city receive, process, utilize and send information. It is no exaggeration to say that entrepreneurs, either from home or abroad, will first examine the infrastructure of a city before deciding whether to pursue business opportunities there.The arts , by comparison, although enabling people to see the world and the human condition differently and to see a truth one might ignore before, do not merit government spending. The first reason is that the arts- referring to music, film and literature altogether- are more likely to attract the investment of the private sector than public facilities. Business people continue to invest in the arts in the expectation of earning lump sum income and the arts in return, continue to flourish without the government spending. Meanwhile, the arts are a key component of a culture and naturally passed down from one generation to another. Unlike public facilities, they require no money to survive.It is therefore clear that construction of public facilities should be given the foremost consideration. The concern about the well-being of individual citizens and that of a city is more acute than the apprehension about the survival and prospects of the arts, something that businesses have a stake in.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Battle of the Chateauguay in the War of 1812

Battle of the Chateauguay in the War of 1812 Battle of the Chateauguay - Conflict Date: The Battle of the Chateauguay was fought October 26, 1813, during the War of 1812 (1812-1815). Armies Commanders Americans Major General Wade Hampton2,600 men British Lieutenant Colonel Charles de Salaberry1,530 men Battle of the Chateauguay - Background: With the failure of American operations in 1812, which saw the loss of Detroit and a defeat at Queenston Heights, plans to renew the offensives against Canada were made for 1813. Advancing across the Niagara frontier, American troops initially had success until being checked at the Battles of Stoney Creek and Beaver Dams in June. With the failure of these efforts, Secretary of War John Armstrong began planning for a fall campaign designed to capture Montreal. If successful, the citys occupation would lead to the collapse of the British position on Lake Ontario and would cause all of Upper Canada to fall into American hands. Battle of the Chateauguay - The American Plan: To take Montreal, Armstrong intended to send two forces north. One, led Major General James Wilkinson, was to depart Sacketts Harbor, NY and advance down the St. Lawrence River towards the city. The other, commanded by Major General Wade Hampton, received orders to move north from Lake Champlain with the goal of uniting with Wilkinson upon reaching Montreal. Though a sound plan, it was hampered by a deep personal feud between the two principal American commanders. Assessing his orders, Hampton initially refused to take part in the operation if it meant working with Wilkinson. To assuage his subordinate, Armstrong offered to lead the campaign in person. With this assurance, Hampton agreed to take the field. Battle of Chateauguay - Hampton Moves Out: In late September, Hampton shifted his command from Burlington, VT to Plattsburgh, NY with the assistance of US Navy gunboats led by Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough. Scouting the direct route north via the Richelieu River, Hampton determined that the British defenses in area were too strong for his force to penetrate and that there was insufficient water for his men. As a result, he shifted his line of advance west to the Chateauguay River. Reaching the river near Four Corners, NY, Hampton made camp after learning that Wilkinson was delayed. Increasingly frustrated by his rivals lack of action, he became concerned that the British were massing against him to the north. Finally receiving word that Wilkinson was ready, Hampton began marching north on October 18. Battle of the Chateauguay - The British Prepare: Alerted to the American advance, the British commander at Montreal, Major General Louis de Watteville, began shifting forces to cover the city. To the south, the leader of the British outposts in the region, Lieutenant Colonel Charles de Salaberry, began mustering militia and light infantry units to meet the threat. Composed entirely of troops recruited in Canada, Salaberrys combined force numbered around 1,500 men and consisted of Canadian Voltigeurs (light infantry), Canadian Fencibles, and various units of Select Embodied Militia. Reaching the border, Hampton was angered when 1,400 New York militiamen refused to cross into Canada. Proceeding with his regulars, his force was reduced to 2,600 men. Battle of the Chateauguay - Salaberrys Position: Well informed as to Hamptons progress, Salaberry assumed a position along the north bank of the Chateauguay River near present-day Ormstown, Quebec. Extending his line north along the bank of English River, he directed his men to construct a line of abatis to protect the position. To his rear, Salaberry placed the light companies of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of Select Embodied Militia to guard Grants Ford. Between these two lines, Salaberry deployed various elements of his command in a series of reserve lines. While he personally commanded the forces the abatis, he assigned leadership of the reserves to Lieutenant Colonel George MacDonnell. Battle of the Chateauguay - Hampton Advances: Reaching the vicinity of Salaberrys lines on late October 25, Hampton dispatched Colonel Robert Purdy and 1,000 men to the south shore of the river with the goal of advancing and securing Grants Ford at dawn. This done, they could attack the Canadians from behind as Brigadier General George Izard mounted a frontal assault on the abatis. Having given Purdy his orders, Hampton received a troubling letter from Armstrong informing him that Wilkinson was now in command of the campaign. In addition, Hampton was instructed to build a large camp for winter quarters on the banks of the St. Lawrence. Interpreting the letter to mean that the attack on Montreal was cancelled for 1813, he would have withdrawn south had Purdy not already been committed. Battle of the Chateauguay - The Americans Held: Marching through the night, Purdys men encountered difficult terrain and failed to reach the ford by dawn. Pushing forward, Hampton and Izard encountered Salaberrys skirmishers around 10:00 AM on October 26. Forming around 300 men from the Voltigeurs, Fencibles, and various militia formations at the abatis, Salaberry prepared to meet the American assault. As Izards brigade moved forward, Purdy came into contact with the militia guarding the ford. Striking Brugià ¨res company, they made some headway until being counterattacked by two companies led by Captains Daly and de Tonnancour. In the resulting fighting, Purdy was forced to fall back. With the fighting raging south of the river, Izard began pressing Salaberrys men along the abatis. This forced the Fencibles, which had advanced forward of the abatis, to fall back. With the situation becoming precarious, Salaberry brought up his reserves and used bugle calls to fool the Americans into thinking that large numbers of enemy troops were approaching. This worked and Izards men assumed a more defensive posture. To the south, Purdy had re-engaged the Canadian militia. In the fighting, both Brugià ¨re and Daly fell badly wounded. The loss of their captains led the militia to begin falling back. In an effort to encircle the retreating Canadians, Purdys men emerged along the river bank and came under heavy fire from Salaberrys position. Stunned, they broke off their pursuit. Having witnessed this action, Hampton elected to end the engagement. Battle of the Chateauguay - Aftermath: In the fighting at the Battle of the Chateauguay, Hampton lost 23 killed, 33 wounded, and 29 missing, while Salaberry sustained 2 killed, 16 wounded, and 4 missing. Though a relatively minor engagement, the Battle of the Chateauguay had significant strategic implications as Hampton, following a council of war, elected to withdraw back to Four Corners rather than move towards the St. Lawrence. Marching south, he dispatched a messenger to Wilkinson informing him of his actions. In response, Wilkinson ordered him to advance to the river at Cornwall. Not believing this possible, Hampton sent a note to Wilkinson and moved south to Plattsburgh. Wilkinsons advance was halted at the Battle of Cryslers Farm on November 11 when he was beaten by a smaller British force. Receiving Hamptons refusal to move to Cornwall after the battle, Wilkinson used it as an excuse to abandon his offensive and move into winter quarters at French Mills, NY. This action effectively ended the 1813 campaign season. Despite high hopes, the only American successes occurred to west where Master Commandant Oliver H. Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie and Major General William H. Harrison triumphed at the Battle of the Thames. Selected Sources History of War: Battle of ChateauguayParks Canada: Battle of ChateauguayWar of 1812-1814: Battle of Chateauguay

Sunday, February 16, 2020

ICS 120 - Anything from the Moors to Pancho Villa Term Paper

ICS 120 - Anything from the Moors to Pancho Villa - Term Paper Example However, the Vandals and Byzantine rulers failed to penetrate the interior that still under the Moorish control. The Berbers were also able to resist domination by the warring Arab armies that kept attacking them from the East. However, this resistance did not last long as the Moors became Islamised by 700 CE (Nicolle 22). The Islamic Moors were able to defeat and take control of much of Iberia by 711 CE. They named peninsula area the Al Indulus. They tried to move northeast towards and across the Pyrenees Mountains but they were revolted by Frank Charles and his army in 732 CE at the Battle of Poitiers. The Moors were ruled over Iberia for several years, converting several of the original inhabitants into Islam (Sertima 65). A small Christain Iberian Kingdom known as the Austrias started the reconquista, or Inquisition, in the 8th century. Slowly they were able to spread their control over the north and western parts of Iberia. By the 13th century, a group of Christian leaders were able to drive out the Islamic Moors from the central part of the peninsula. Although most of the Iberian area fell under foreign control, the Moor’s Kingdom of Granada in the south thrived for three hundred more years. During the late half of the 15th century, a mass exodus from the peninsula was caused by forced conversion into Catholicism. This led to the decline of the powerful Al-Indulus into small fiefdoms which were known as taifas. These fiefdoms were consolidated in part under the Cordoba Caliphate (Nicolle 55). During the wars of Inquisition, many of the Moors chose to remain in Spain and were converted to Christianity. They were heavily persecuted by King Phillip and his armies if and when they were thought to be practising Islam in secret. They revolted in 1568 and this led to more persecutions. Eventually, they were expelled from Spain. Although